Calculating Efficiency Ratios

Efficiency Ratios provide additional insights into business operations. These are useful in helping an investor or lender spot key problem areas related to inventory management, cash flow, and collections.

These ratios include:


The Inventory Turn-Over Ratio measures how long it takes for inventory to be sold and replaced during a period (typically a year.) The formula is as follows:

Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold/Average Inventory*

The longer inventory sits on the shelf, the more it costs the company because gross profit is not realized from the sale. Sales and inventory management are key measures for investors.

*Average Inventory = (Beginning Inventory+Ending Inventory)/2



The Average Collection Period Ratio measures the average number of days customers take to pay for products or services. The formula is as follows:

Average Collection = Account Balances for the Year/Net Sales for the Year

A short average collection period compared to industry standards is preferred by investors.

While these formulas are straightforward, I have created a spreadsheet calculator for readers to use an explore. If you’re interested, you can download the Efficiency Ratio Calculator using the button below. If you would like to learn more about Financial Ratios and how they may be used, read the post, Financial Ratio Analysis and the Entrepreneur.




A few notes on this calculator:

  • This calculator is an example and is for use as is. It is not supported in any way. It is not intended to be a tool to use without customization based on the specifics of an entrepreneurial venture and its unique financial statements.
  • This calculator is only an example to give the reader an idea of how such a tool can be developed. The numbers within are not based on a real business. I compiled this as an offshoot of work in a graduate class, but I have created developed similar models for entrepreneurial ventures. Each business venture is different, and so is the ratios used and considered for that enterprise.
  • Financial Ratio calculations are done annually using actual numbers. This model can be used in that way. It can also be used to calculate and review ratios monthly. Monthly numbers would allow the reader to track improvements over time.
  • All of the “Bold Blue” text areas can be changed to demonstrate how the interactivity might work. No other data can be changed.
  • Formulas can be seen in each of the cells (mouse over it), but only the values in the “Bold Blue” text area can be changed.
  • By downloading you acknowledge this is for personal use only. It is not to be sold or distributed in any way.



Rogers, S. (2014). Entrepreneurial Finance: Finance and Business Strategies for the Serious Entrepreneur. New York: McGraw Hill Education.

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Calculating Efficiency Ratios

by David Harkins time to read: 2 min
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